|QSO hosts||Searching for H-R diagram of QSO||The redshift of BL Lacertae objects||The core fundamental plane of radio galaxies|
|Figure 1: Near IR images of high redshift quasars obtained with VLT + ISAAC in the K band. All sources show very close companions at few arcsec from the QSO nuclei.|
The QSO phenomenon occurs in the nuclei
of massive galaxies and exhibits a strong evolution
with the cosmic time. The central engine for the huge energy
emission is believed to be a supermassive black hole. Similar
massive but inactive black holes have been also detected in nearby early type
These findings suggest that many normal (inactive) galaxies may have
hosted nuclear activity (e.g. quasars) at an early stage of their life
and for a relatively
short period of time. Studying the link between quasars and
host galaxies may thus yield fundamental clues for understanding
processes of formation and evolution of both the active
and the galaxies.
Physical insight on the evolution of spheroidal galaxies and black holes with cosmic epoch can be obtained by the characterization of high redshift quasar hosts, assuming that the relation between the central black hole mass and the mass of the host galaxy remains valid at high redshifts.
|Figure 2: The evolution of radio loud quasar host luminosity compared with that
expected for massive ellipticals (at M∗, M∗-1 and M∗-2; solid, dotted
and dashed line ) undergoing passive stellar evolution. Low redshift (z
< 2) data represent: HST observations at low (triangles) and
intermediate (squares) redshift. VLT observations (filled
circles). The value for host galaxy of the two RLQ at z ∼ 2.5 and 2.9
(filled pentagons) is derived from the NACO observation of single
The two individual objects at z >2 from (Peng et al. 2006) (open stars). The data for samples at low redshift are fully described in (Falomo et al. 2004). Each point is plotted at the mean redshift of the considered sample while the error bar represents the 1σ dispersion of the mean except for the individual objects at z > 2 where the uncertainty of the measurement is given. The asterisks represent the average values in redshift bin of 0.3 from the compilation of radio galaxies by (Willott McLure & Jarvis 2003). See also Falomo et al. (2005) and Falomo et al. (2008) for full details on these results.
Luminous active nuclei may in fact trace the
massive spheroidal galaxies at high
redshift. The study of their hosts offers an unique
way to determine how the luminosity,
scale-length and morphology of massive
galaxies vary between the peak of quasar activity (at z = 2 - 3) and
the present epoch. These studies are carried out at OAPd using
resolution near-IR imaging (see example in Figure 1) and also with
An example of these results is shown in Figure 2 where the cosmic
evolution of RLQ hosts is given for objects up to z = 3.
Altogether these observations describe a general trend where the host luminosity increases by ∼ 1.5 mag from present epoch up to z ∼ 3. On average, this trend is consistent with that of galaxies of luminosity ∼5L* undergoing passive stellar evolution. The predominance of an old, evolved stellar population is also indicated by spectroscopic studies of low redshift quasars. Remarkably, both RG and RLQ hosts follow a similar trend of the luminosity up to redshift z ∼ 3. This is suggestive of a common origin of the parent galaxies, it also shows both types of radio loud galaxies follow the same evolutionary trend of inactive massive spheroids. The available data indicate therefore that QSO host galaxies are already well formed at z ∼ 3. Since this epoch they follow a luminosity evolution consistent with stellar passive evolution. This does not exclude that in some cases episodes of new star formation may occur. The inferred picture, however, is that there is no decrease in mass at early epochs up to z ∼ 3.
Full discussion of these results is given in Falomo et al (2008), Kotilainen et al. (2009).